Ali Fisher and I have recently exchanged thoughts and data regarding the increasing Jihadi use of Twitter. By taking an interdisciplinary approach of social-media analysis and cluster network assessment, we decided to start a series on Jihadica on the parts of the overall jihadi, primarily Arabic language propaganda resonating among the audiences online. We plan on delivering updates on the subject as we move along and kick-off the series with an overall introduction to the theme.

In future posts in the series, we will highlight and decipher some of the core content most often shared on Twitter, allowing conclusions to be drawn about the parts of jihadist propaganda which resonate with a wider audience (and hence shared over and over again).

Introducing the theme

The recent essay by Abu Sa‘d al-‘Amili on the state of global online jihad (discussed here) lamented a general decline in participation in jihadi online forums. Furthermore, al-‘Amili issued a “Call (nida’) to the Soldiers of the Jihadi Media” demanding that they “return to their frontiers (thughur)” elevating their status. Al-‘Amili himself is one of the high-profile clerics, a “prolific “Internet Shaykh” (Lia) on the forums, but is also quite active on twitter (@al3aamili).

Two interrelated causes identified by Abu Sa‘d al-‘Amili were the periods when forums were offline and the migration of users to social networking sites such as Twitter and Facebook. This is exacerbated by the movement of “major [jihadi] writers and analysts” (kibar al-kuttab wa-l-muhallilin) from the forums to social media platforms. This has perhaps increased the momentum of members of tier-one jihad forums to expand onto twitter while twitter as a massive communication relay has become the basis for a new generation of sympathizers, posing another intersection. Twitter is a further medium of choice to (re-) disseminate propaganda material in general and is a platform where activists, sympathizers, and actual fighters upload audiovisual and other types into the jihadi hub.

Jihadists have aggressively expanded the use of twitter, in addition to Facebook and YouTube, especially since the outbreak of violence in Syria. During 2011 members of Jihadist forums issued media-strategies and advisory to fellow members prior, as for example is stated in this posting here of the al-Ansar forum. The posting, initiated by the member Istishhadiyya is basically a very elemental guide, comprehensive and for beginners, highlighting the effective and fast communication capability. The same posting was copy-and-pasted by Shumukh member Basha’ir shortly afterwards. A handbook, compiled by Twitter user @osamh ended up on the jihadi forums to further underline the importance of Twitter as well as its difference to Facebook, where jihadists already have a strong presence.

It took a while for jihadi activism to fully unravel on Twitter, and they have maintained a cohesive as well as detailed presence on this social media platform since the Syrian conflict turned violent in 2012.

Twitter, and as such social media in general, is in the meantime an integral part of jihadists’ media endeavors on the Internet, with the majority of jihadi forums having their official account advertised for on the main pages of the forums.

The role of the media activists, or in jihadist speak the “media mujahid” has since the death of Osama bin Laden in May of 2011 been promoted, highlighted and approved. AQ related documents have made this role model prominent. The role model of the “media martyr” any “media mujahid” can be become, is backed by the call to take the fight on a greater level on al channels online issued by al-Fajr in their response of the killing of bin Laden:

“The Internet is a battlefield for jihad, a place for missionary work, a field of confronting the enemies of God. It is upon any individual to consider himself as a media-mujahid, dedicating himself, his wealth and his time for God.” (Analysis here, Arabic original here)

At first, the strategies to promote Twitter among members of jihadi forums failed to develop substantial traction, but this changed drastically during 2012. When jihadists in and outside of Syria started to use and incorporate twitter as a medium to disseminate and re-post al-Qa’ida and other propaganda material.

Twitter activism and jihadi supporters

At first Syrian non-violent activists used, and continue to use, twitter as a medium to document human rights abuse and war crimes of the Assad regime, but jihadists quickly adapted that content and the platform for their propaganda.

Social-media smart and professional jihadists adopted this treasure grove for their propaganda. By rebranding and reframing the content created by civil society activists, jihadi propaganda used these grievances to support a key jihadist self-perception; the obligation to respond by force to defend and protect the Sunnites in Syria.

Due to the effect and success of the Syrian based Jihadi groups, other jihadi groups as well as the main forums are adopting the twitter activism, advertising official forum accounts on the main pages with users within the forums using twitter hashtags (#) or references to twitter users (for example: @al_nukhba). A list of “The most important jihadi and support sites for jihad and the mujahideen on Twitter” was recently posted on the Shumukh al-Islam forum, allowing users to identify key accounts they might wish to follow.

Individual sympathizers and all those feeling inclined to contribute to the media jihad re-disseminate authoritative files of al-Qa’ida on twitter on a larger scale. Now all major jihadi media departments, part of militant networks, have their own channels on Twitter, linking to content from the jihadi forums and other social media platforms, primarily YouTube, Facebook, and pictures in general.

Twitter has turned into a primary hub for the distribution of jihadi agitprop files. These Jihadi information sharing networks using Twitter coexist, autonomously, with the classical forums. These networks carry, for example, samples of the wide range of jihadi propaganda files, in some cases placed first on Twitter, posted via mobile phones from the front lines. As a brief overview, a few samples consisting of:


  • martyrs in general and martyrdom operatives (istishhadiyyun) announced and identified by their hashtag and Twitter account;
  • calls for donations with phone numbers and social media contact information; taking care of the orphans of the martyrs among other civil elements;
  • general material of incitement, and the impact of online attained propaganda files used offline are popular and gain plenty of traction,

What are they sharing?

In addition to disseminating their own propaganda, jihadi media activists repurpose content from social movements and non-jihadi groups for their own purposes, framing the non-jihadi actions or demonstrations as part of the global militant struggle. This has created another ‘grey area’ where analysts have to carefully monitor and decipher such content. The forum administrators and media-activists also are starting to incorporate and misuse Twitter for their purposes, in coordinated attempts to virtually infiltrate legitimate social movements by using the same hash tags and a similar rhetoric to create ideological cohesion – and placing extremist views and files in that virtual sphere while claiming to fight on the ground for the sake of the people.

To analyze jihadi media networks, their sympathizers and followers we have used a combined approach focused on a unique interdisciplinary analysis of the data acquired by technical means and the subsequent and immediate analytical process of its content.

Using these methods we have asked a range of questions, how have jihadi propagandists been able to gain traction and a foothold online? How do they disseminate propaganda content to a global, multilingual audience and what resonates most with that audience? What are the networks through which their content flows and what are the different roles users play within these networks? Ultimately do the different jihadi twitter accounts reach a range of different communities, or is it a small densely interconnected echo chamber?


  1. […] the second instalment of our Jihadi Twitter Activism series Nico Prucha and I explore data collected from Twitter related to the Syrian AQ […]

  2. […] has two posts breaking down the use of twitter by so-called ‘jihadi’s': One & […]

  3. […] mentioned this guide in our first post kicking off the series on Jihadica. In this post we intend to clarify the meaning of Ahmad […]

  4. Angel Formoso says:

    There are two Quranic verses that apply perjoratively to mosque spying: 1) deception and 2) mischief. These two can be used interchangeably. To those who witness mosque spying, go to one of our brothers at NYPD, file a warrant of surveillance for violation of privacy and hopefully our brother at NYPD and FBI would execute a warrant of arrest once he does it again.

  5. Angel Formoso says:

    ” A (declaration) of immunity from Allah and His Messenge to those of the Pagans with whom you have contracted mutual alliances. Go, you then, for four months, backwards and forwards, (as you will), throughout the land, but know that you cannot frustrate Allah (by your falsehood) but Allah will cover with shame those who reject Him. And an announcement from Allah and His Messenger, to the people (assembled) on the Day of the Great Pilgrimage – That Allah and His Messenger dissolve (treaty) obligations with the Pagans….” Quran, 9:1-3

    One way of saying that only Us the People of Allah have the monopoly over truth..that we are the only ones saved on the Day of Judgment..that to remain decently dressed and holy in our deeds are the only ways to salvation..that to abstain from pork separates us from the lovers of wine, money and swines…

  6. […] mentioned this guide in our first post kicking off the series on Jihadica. In this post we intend to clarify the meaning ofAhmad […]

  7. mike says:

    I don’t know what’s in a mans brain to make him believe that by making people hate you, you’re going to influence a positive dialogue. First there is no God, or Allah not the way you portray it in any case. You may have a valid cause but your idiot way of communicating pretty much null and voids any interest. One day you and all your junk will be 6 feet under and that’s a good thing.

  8. Rafael Reyna says:

    Entiendo perfectamente el derecho del pueblo palestino a estar en su pais.

    No estoy de acuerdo con ningun abuso sobre cualquier pueblo.

    Quisiera que la Jihad no se entrometiera en mi patria Venezuela, son demasiados problemas para tener que estar persiguiendo fanaticos.

    Tengo muchos amigos palestinos y libaneses, tengo malas eperiencias con los sirios.

    Les deseo PAZ , tierra, PAZ

  9. […] do stress, however, that the reader should keep in mind that one of the key phenoma of jihadi Twitter activism in Syria is that most users engaged online are using mainly mobile platforms. This accounts for […]

  10. Pop Mariana says:

    I am Pop Mariana Mures county, city Craiesti (the plain), number 15, Romania.I write because I need your help . Please save me and protect me from the Romanian nation, who are criminals all.Here children kill their parents, for example, recently my brothers, along with doctors, my neighbors and power in this country I have killed mother. I escaped alive …. but are their target permanent will take my life to the devil. They are helped by those who I complained, NATO, EU, Putin, Merkel, Obama, Kim Jung, the supreme leader of Iran, and many others … I am 40 years old, I am divorced, have two children and live with father and another brother crazy.All my rights were me and I’m taken, family, neighbors, the strength of the city, county and strength in Bucharest, for example, houses, job, money, freedom, life.I increased only 2 children, and no one helped me with anything, the Court gave the right to receive alimony from dad their.De children 20 years I cared for my mother and father seriously ill sister …. took my right to state carer, and I was mocked brothers and my children … I always ate my work, not anymore, I am weak and powerless, I worked too hard for my family and They beat me and they will kill me …. another sister was murdered by her …. and I know many people who were killed.These criminals pay for their crimes anyone to not find out the truth . I am not allowed to have friends, to have loved, to marry, no country or outside the country, I have no legal right to have children, my uterus was returned without my knowledge I am not entitled to health and peace of mind . I am biologically different from other people around me I have earth. body in permanenly.They see what you think, what I feel and what I want to do, and bad energy in her enormously weakens me, does not anymore. Romanians are the biggest thieves on earth, not only as killing lions prey but are the biggest sinners parents have sex with their children, brothers between them … it’s full of gays and lesbians, consume drugs dementia causes them …. they are very inhuman.I need army, as many army to send these evil devils generation in different hell.For this purpose I came to earth, to say that God decided this nation bad devil evil”” will surely die! Please read what it says in Ezekiel, 33, 1-33 … it says about me and how this nation, among whom traiesc.Big issues that I have at the moment are; permanent physical attack those around My (I have), the peace and safety of my children and my brother from this crazy-aggressive and the other brothers who collaborate with the power to destroy and kill me, financial situation that brought me these enemies of mine pain for the loss of all being loved, mother, sister, uncle, in a very unfair. Please write a phone number where you can call me and I will hear and you will see the phone with your eyes, I want to send a good soldier of your army here to tell you the situation on the spot and to give me first aid measures if possible rather how. I send photos more with brother who lives here in the parents how to beat the father and broke mine, as salt ax us, mother murdered, and mine.Mi wish to know this critical situation the more people,thankyou.

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  12. […] Nico Prucha, “Jihadi Twitter activism – Introduction,” Jihadica, 27 April 2013, Link […]